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a futura memoria

He left Mexico for Spain in March, , and was duly accorded a magnificent reception at Court. But he did not reappoint him to the governorship of New Spain. In he retired to Spain, where he lived out the remaining seven years of his life, a disappointed and disillusioned man. He had played the game according to the rules, but these had been laid down by the Spanish Crown.

Publicaciones de la Sociedad de Estudios Cortesianos No. I, Mexico, Below, p. In addition to these works, I have also made use of the following: Robert S.

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Siglos VI-V a. VI-V a. Fragmentos y referencias siglos VI-V a.

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Siglo IV a. Jenofonte de Atenas c. Siglo II a.

Siglo I a. Cayo Salustio Crispo a. Cornelio Nepote c. Siglo II Plutarco c. X Liutprando de Cremona c. Historia gral. Madison y J. Madrid: Temas de Hoy, Pages And the readings go on — Don Quixote becomes the symbol of strictly literary values the modern novel , or of values with political implications European values, perhaps?

He has yet to ask for the dissolution of the Army perhaps in order to justify the intervention of the Spanish Army in Afghanistan , although it does seem that by removing the troops from Iraq, the Socialist government would like to transform the Corps into a sort of Firefighters without Borders, ready to deploy off to Afghanistan to keep an eye on any fires that might break out by chance during the electoral period in this new, projected democracy. I do, however, see it necessary to conclude that if they want to keep maintaining their pacifism and universal solidarity, then they must back off their devotion to Don Quixote, for in no way can Don Quixote be taken as a symbol of solidarity, peace, and tolerance.

Let them continue their pacifist and anti-military politics, but no longer by taking the name of Don Quixote in vain. For what solidarity did Don Quixote show towards the guards watching over the chain-gang of galley slaves? His solidarity with the convicts implies a lack of solidarity with the guards, and cannot therefore be called universal.

If Don Quixote is the symbol of something, he is the symbol of weapons, of intolerance — an intolerance so great that he cannot stand it when Master Pedro puts on a puppet show of the story Melisendra, who is about to be captured by a Moor king.

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Futura, First Edition

And who can conceive of an unarmed Don Quixote? These imaginary figures would exhaust themselves as they inhabit a social imaginary. Some critics suggest that Cervantes, through the figure of Alonso Quijano, meant to represent some actual individual, one he might have met directly or through some friend or writer. Accordingly, the real reference of Don Quixote would be Alonso Quijano — an individual made of flesh and blood, but affected by a specific type of insanity that Cervantes intuitively managed to discover and identify without being a doctor or a psychiatrist.

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Cervantes may have been inspired by him, or perhaps by Don Rodrigo Pacheco, a marquis from Argamasilla de Alba, who also went mad reading books of chivalry. Psychiatrists have, naturally, tended to interpret Don Quixote from categories typical of their trade. In the 19th century, Dr. Esquirol interpreted Don Quixote as a model of monomania a term of his own invention. More recently, Dr. I must thank my dear friend Dr. Alonso for his demonstration that Alonso Quijano suffered from a disorder that Cervantes was able to describe with impressive precision.


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Not necessarily, as it could be the case that Cervantes was using his description of a specific type of disorder as the symbol of another reference: the reality of certain people in Spain not Spain itself, as many argue , a reality in which men, according to many accounts, had gone mad either because they went to America as some say or because they stopped going as I, and others, say. Don Quixote, slashing the wine skins in the inn, believes he sees spilled blood where there is only wine: is Cervantes here trying to describe a type of disorder similar to that of someone who, upon hearing the consecration, prepares to drink wine that has been turned into blood?

For is not Alonso Quijano himself a literary figure? Another matter is to identify these figures and determine the possible reach that the use of delusional symbols as symbols of themselves might have.


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A human figure, such as Don Quixote, never exists in isolation: one person always implies others who relate to one another in either peaceful or hostile coexistence. In other words, an individual in and of itself is an absurdity, a metaphysical entity, and as such the attempt to interpret Don Quixote as a symbol of some isolated individual, whether sane or mad, is mere metaphysics — an individual in itself cannot exist because existence is co-existence.

Not even a king or emperor may be considered an individual, in the sense of an isolated being. According to Aristotelian criteria either one commands, or some command, or all the majority command. Don Quixote, from this dualist viewpoint of coexistence, has always been considered in relation to Sancho. There are, however, very serious reasons to conclude that these dualist viewpoints are only a fragment of a more complicated structure.

Adam and Eve, for example, are only a fragment of a society they make up together with their sons Cain, Abel, and Seth. Don Quixote and Sancho are usually thought of in terms of abstract oppositions like idealism and realism or utopic and pragmatic. But these oppositions fall apart immediately: they suppose that idealism is some sort of personal disposition geared to transcend the immediate horizon of the facts of life, and thereby impulses people toward altruism or glory. Sancho, then, does not oppose Don Quixote because he too from the beginning, not only in the second part, as some critics contend is quixoticized.

Getting himself into all sorts of dangers,he accompanies Don Quixote not only to acquire riches which itself would be enough, given that someone who wants to acquire riches by putting his life in danger is no longer a pragmatic realist in the traditional sense but also to help his wife Teresa Cascajo ascend the social ladder. But when we apply the dualist structure to a given social group the circle of individual human beings, for example , we find that reality is presented to us as a plurality of pairs disconnected from each other since we suppose that the terms of each pair refer integrally to one another.

In effect, the connection of the terms of each pair is completed internally, whether each individual is considered to be correlated or conjugated with the other. As such, global reality is seen as a multiplicity composed of infinite pairs whose interactions are merely random. The most basic structure compatible with the principle of symploke of philosophical materialism is the ternary structure. In a triad A, B, C , each member is involved with the others, but at the same time it is possible to recognize binary coalitions [A, B], [A, C], [B, C] in which the third member, while segregated, still remains associated with the others.

The organization of any field constituted by individuals also contains the possibility for each triad to be involved with other triads through some common unity, thus giving rise to enneads 3 x 3 , dozens 3 x 4 , and so on. In these pluralities organized in triads, enneads, and dozens, the principle of symploke is adequately satisfied.

Both the connection not total of some things with others, and the disconnection or discontinuity of some things with others which will follow their own course , can be affirmed from this plurality. This conception of reality or of its regions as organized in triplets is just as old as conceptions organized dualistically. In Christianity, and more specifically in the Catholic tradition to which Don Quixote undoubtedly belongs , the fundamental triad is represented in the dogma of the Trinity: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit which proceeds from the Father and the Son together in this final aspect Roman Catholics differ from Greek Orthodox, for whom the Holy Spirit is some sort of emanation from the Father, without the participation of the Son.

In Roman Christianity the dogma of the Trinity developed gradually, and the appeal to the Holy Spirit was probably related to the constitution of the Universal church itself, one which had no parallel in its social structure with the known social structures of the Greeks such as the family or the state. In addition, in some Germanic trinities one of the members is feminine — Odin, Thor, and Freyja. Let us leave aside the dualist organization that imposes upon us the association in pairs between Don Quixote and Sancho, even if such an association may be very fundamental in which the two are sometimes explained by their complementarity and at other times for their conjugation: Don Quixote maintains the unity between the different episodes of his quest through Sancho, who maintains the unity between the episodes of his quest through Don Quixote.

What is sure is that Don Quixote always appears as a member of the trinity that he makes up with Sancho and Dulcinea. In any case, the basic trinity around which Don Quixote seems to move throughout the book is the one he makes up with Sancho and Dulcinea. Facing the Catholic Trinity as my hypothesis obliges , it must be conceded that Don Quixote corresponds to the role of Father, Sancho to that of Son just as his sire Don Quixote calls him time and time again , and regarding Dulcinea, she must be put in correspondence with the Holy Spirit, which Sabellius interpreted as a feminine entity, as the Mother Church.

As an ideal figure, how can it be ignored that she comes from both the Father Don Quixote and the Son Sancho? The peasant, who had made the figure of Dulcinea, prods her poultry with a nail that she was carrying and the poultry breaks into a canter across the field, dumping Lady Dulcinea among the daisies. Is it not obvious here that Cervantes is trying to linger in the description of the poetic vision of the peasant that Sancho offers to Don Quixote by drawing attention to her agility while concealing the moon face and flat nose that Don Quixote also sees? Don Quixote does not see Dulcinea, but rather, reinforced by Sancho, sees an agile peasant girl moon-faced and flat-nosed.

Seeing these three villagers announced as Dulcinea and her duchesses come out of the wood, Don Quixote says:. Psychiatrists might also recognize this same delirium of theological rationalization in Saint Thomas, when he tries to explain why the piece of bread and cup of wine that the priest holds at the altar are in reality the miraculous transmutation of the invisible, intangible body of Christ. And what psychiatrist would dare diagnose Saint Thomas Aquinius as a madman?

This madness is not only a psychological process that would have affected Alonso Quijano. It is also and primarily a social process triggered by the people who surround Don Quixote and who act as Cartesian evil geniuses, deceiving him even while trying to help or even entertain him. From the general presupposition that a singular person always implies a plurality of people, I have tried to outline the structure of this plurality, the one in which the characters of Don Quixote operate.

Furthermore, these trinitary structures can give rise to other, more complex structures such as enneads or dozens, which are found in the novel in the form of the remembrance of the twelve signs of the Zodiac, the twelve apostles, or the twelve Knights of the Round Table. Herein lies its potential to be made into sculptural or pictorial representations, and later into cinematographic and televised ones. Cervantes offers us characters in well-defined scenes. Various characters are always moving in these scenes, at least in principle there are, of course, exceptions with a single character speaking in a monologue or two speaking in dialogue ; the triangle is the elemental structure of the theater as well.

Finally, in addition to references and figures contained within both the circle of human persons and the radial region of space, the stage also contains figures and references that extend beyond this circle and region.

"main ambition" translation into Spanish

Focusing on the unique rhythm that he seems to attribute to finite and immanent matters, he seems to set aside the indefinite and transcendent rhythm of matters that would concern the Catholic Church. Undoubtedly, these references can be put to the side if one remains in humanist, ethical, or psychological interpretations of the novel. Cervantes took part in this battle under the command of Don Juan de Austria and there he lost use of his left arm, which served as a lifelong memory of the reality of the Muslim offensive.

In addition to this loss, he was taken prisoner by the Moors and held captive for five years in Algiers until he was set free by a paid ransom. However, its ascending course has slowed down, chiefly due to the other empires rising out of its shadow. As I understand it, this meditation on the Spanish empire is a task whose philosophical importance has a much further reach than the humanist meditation on the human condition, which may seem to be a much more profound meditation, but in reality is but a uniform, abstract, and empty monotony.

Only from the continental shelves formed by these universal empires can we begin to approach the depths of what we call the human condition, not as something invariable except in its genetic structure common with primates but as something ever-changing and given in the course of history. O resplendent light of arms! O honour and mirror of the Spanish nation! For our purposes, this has a far-reaching political meaning, demonstrating not only that the Spanish nation is already recognized in the 16th century much earlier than the English or French, let alone the Catalonian or Basque nation , but also offering the extra-literary reference that Cervantes attributed to the figure of Don Quixote.

The unity and consistency of this Spanish nation could be understood beyond the then-hegemonic and visible Empire; it could be understood from France, Italy, England, and from America. To what then does Sancho refer? He too is given to us from the same stage: a peasant from La Mancha, the head of a family made up by his wife and two children.