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Email or Phone Password Forgot account? Log In. Forgot account? Not Now. Suggest Edits. In his memoir Ingram provides insider information about those cases. Jim Ingram passed away in August of cancer, but worked on this memoir with co-author James L. We must remember always that accusation is not proof and that conviction depends upon evidence and due process of law. We will not walk in fear, one of another. We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason, if we dig deep in our history and our doctrine, and remember that we are not descended from fearful men—not from men who feared to write, to speak, to associate and to defend causes that were, for the moment, unpopular.
This is no time for men who oppose Senator McCarthy's methods to keep silent, or for those who approve. We can deny our heritage and our history, but we cannot escape responsibility for the result. There is no way for a citizen of a republic to abdicate his responsibilities. As a nation we have come into our full inheritance at a tender age. We proclaim ourselves, as indeed we are, the defenders of freedom, wherever it continues to exist in the world, but we cannot defend freedom abroad by deserting it at home. The actions of the junior Senator from Wisconsin have caused alarm and dismay amongst our allies abroad, and given considerable comfort to our enemies.
And whose fault is that? Not really his. He didn't create this situation of fear; he merely exploited it—and rather successfully.
Cassius was right: "The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in ourselves. The Murrow shows, together with the televised Army—McCarthy hearings of the same year, were the major causes of a nationwide popular opinion backlash against McCarthy,  in part because for the first time his statements were being publicly challenged by noteworthy figures.
To counter the negative publicity, McCarthy appeared on See It Now on April 6, , and made a number of charges against the popular Murrow, including the accusation that he colluded with VOKS , the "Russian espionage and propaganda organization". According to Arthur Herman , popular historian and senior fellow of the conservative Hudson Institute , Murrow's staff edited the film to show McCarthy behaving in an unflattering way. Herman quotes John Cogley of Commonweal , a McCarthy critic, as stating, "A totally different selection of film would turn McCarthy into a man on a shining white steed—infinitely reasonable, burdened with the onus of single-handedly cleaning out subversives in the face of violent criticism" and that Murrow used "partial truth and innuendo".
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On March 18, Sauk-Prairie Star editor Leroy Gore of Sauk City , Wisconsin urged the recall of McCarthy in a front-page editorial that ran alongside a sample petition that readers could fill out and mail to the newspaper. A Republican and former McCarthy supporter, Gore cited the senator with subverting President Eisenhower's authority, disrespecting Wisconsin's own Gen.
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Ralph Wise Zwicker and ignoring the plight of Wisconsin dairy farmers faced with price-slashing surpluses. Despite critics' claims that a recall attempt was foolhardy, the "Joe Must Go" movement caught fire and was backed by a diverse coalition including other Republican leaders, Democrats, businessmen, farmers and students.
Wisconsin's constitution stipulates the number of signatures needed to force a recall election must exceed one-quarter the number of voters in the most recent gubernatorial election, requiring the anti-McCarthy movement to gather some , signatures in sixty days. With little support from organized labor or the state Democratic Party , the roughly organized recall effort attracted national attention, particularly during the concurrent Army-McCarthy hearings. Following the deadline of June 5, the final number of signatures was never determined because the petitions were sent out of state to avoid a subpoena from the Sauk County district attorney, an ardent McCarthy supporter who was investigating the leaders of the recall campaign on the grounds that they had violated Wisconsin's Corrupt Practices Act.
Chicago newspapermen later tallied , names while another 50, were said to be hidden in Minneapolis, with other lists buried on Sauk County farms. Several members of the U. Senate had opposed McCarthy well before Senator Margaret Chase Smith , a Maine Republican, delivered her " Declaration of Conscience " on June 1, , calling for an end to the use of smear tactics without mentioning McCarthy or anyone else by name.
Hendrickson —joined her in condemning McCarthy's tactics. McCarthy referred to Smith and her fellow senators as "Snow White and the six dwarfs". Flanders gave a humor-laced speech on the Senate floor, questioning McCarthy's tactics in fighting communism, likening McCarthyism to "housecleaning" with "much clatter and hullabaloo". He recommended that McCarthy turn his attention to the worldwide encroachment of Communism outside North America. Although there were many in the Senate who believed that some sort of disciplinary action against McCarthy was warranted, there was no clear majority supporting this resolution.
Some of the resistance was due to concern about usurping the Senate's rules regarding committee chairs and seniority. Flanders next introduced a resolution to censure McCarthy. The resolution was initially written without any reference to particular actions or misdeeds on McCarthy's part. As Flanders put it, "It was not his breaches of etiquette, or of rules or sometimes even of laws which is so disturbing," but rather his overall pattern of behavior.
Ultimately a "bill of particulars" listing 46 charges was added to the censure resolution. A special committee, chaired by Senator Arthur Vivian Watkins , was appointed to study and evaluate the resolution. This committee opened hearings on August After two months of hearings and deliberations, the Watkins Committee recommended that McCarthy be censured on two of the 46 counts: his contempt of the Subcommittee on Rules and Administration, which had called him to testify in and , and his abuse of General Zwicker in The Zwicker count was dropped by the full Senate on the grounds that McCarthy's conduct was arguably "induced" by Zwicker's own behavior.
In place of this count, a new one was drafted regarding McCarthy's statements about the Watkins Committee itself. On December 2, , the Senate voted to "condemn" McCarthy on both counts by a vote of 67 to The only senator not on record was John F. Kennedy , who was hospitalized for back surgery; Kennedy never indicated how he would have voted. Styles Bridges , a McCarthy supporter, argued that the resolution was "not a censure resolution" because the word "condemn" rather than "censure" was used in the final draft.
The word "censure" was then removed from the title of the resolution, though it is generally regarded and referred to as a censure of McCarthy, both by historians  and in Senate documents. Jenner , one of McCarthy's friends and fellow Republicans, likened McCarthy's conduct to that of "the kid who came to the party and peed in the lemonade. After his condemnation and censure, Joseph McCarthy continued senatorial duties for another two and a half years.
But his career as a major public figure had been unmistakably ruined. His colleagues in the Senate obviously avoided him; his speeches on the Senate floor were delivered to a near-empty chamber or were received with intentional and conspicuous displays of inattention. Still, McCarthy continued to rail against Communism. He warned against attendance at summit conferences with "the Reds", saying that "you cannot offer friendship to tyrants and murderers Our long-term objective must be the eradication of Communism from the face of the earth. Brennan , after reading a speech Brennan had given shortly beforehand in which he characterized McCarthy's anti-Communist investigations as "witch hunts".
McCarthy's opposition failed to gain any traction, however, and he was the only senator to vote against Brennan's confirmation. McCarthy's biographers agree that he was a changed man after the censure; declining both physically and emotionally, he became a "pale ghost of his former self" in the words of Fred J.
Numerous eyewitnesses, including Senate aide George Reedy and journalist Tom Wicker , reported finding him alarmingly drunk in the Senate. Journalist Richard Rovere wrote:. He had always been a heavy drinker, and there were times in those seasons of discontent when he drank more than ever.
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But he was not always drunk. He went on the wagon for him this meant beer instead of whiskey for days and weeks at a time. The difficulty toward the end was that he couldn't hold the stuff. He went to pieces on his second or third drink.